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This trend is not however uniform within the land transportation sector itself erectile dysfunction see a doctor purchase extra super cialis 100 mg, as road transportation is almost the sole mode responsible for additional energy demands over the last 25 years. Despite a falling market share, rail transport, on the basis of 1 kg of oil equivalent, remains four times more ef cient for passenger movement and twice as ef cient for freight movement as road transport. Maritime transportation accounts for 90 percent of cross-border world trade as measured by volume. The nature of water transport and its economies of scale make it the most energy-ef cient mode since it uses only 7 percent of all the energy consumed by transport activities, a gure way below its contribution to the mobility of goods. Air transportation plays an integral part in the globalization of transportation networks. The aviation industry accounts for 8 percent of the energy consumed by transportation. Technological innovations, such as more ef cient engines and better aerodynamics, have led to a continuous improvement of the energy ef ciency of each new generation of aircrafts. Further distinctions in the energy consumption of transport can be made between passenger and freight movements: Passenger transportation accounts for 60 to 70 percent of energy consumption from transportation activities. The private car is the dominant mode but has a poor energetic performance, although this performance has seen substantial improvements since the 1970s, mainly due to growing energy prices and regulations. There is a close relationship between rising income, automobile ownership and distance traveled by vehicle. The United States has one of the highest levels of car ownership in the world with one car for every two people. About 60 percent of all American households owned two or more cars, with 19 percent owning three or more. Fuel consumption is however impacted by diminishing returns, implying that higher levels of fuel ef ciency involve declining marginal gains in fuel consumption. Also, the growth of vehicle-miles traveled is correlated with changes in energy prices and is entering a phase of maturity in several developed countries. Freight transportation is dominated by rail and maritime shipping, the two most energy-ef cient modes. Coastal and inland waterways also provide an energyef cient method of transporting passengers and cargoes. A tow boat moving a typical load of 15 barges in tow holds the equivalent of 225 rail car loads or 870 truckloads. Transportation and alternative fuels All other things being equal, the energy source with the lowest cost will always be sought. The dominance of petroleum-derived fuels is a result of the relative simplicity with which they can be stored and ef ciently used in the internal combustion engine vehicle. Other fossil fuels (natural gas, propane and methanol) can be used as transportation fuels but require a more complicated storage system. The main issue concerning the large-scale uses of these alternative vehicle fuels is the large capital investments required in distribution facilities as compared with conventional fuels. Another issue is that in terms of energy density, these alternative fuels have lower ef ciency than gasoline and thus require greater volume of on-board storage to cover the equivalent distance as a gasoline propelled vehicle if performance is kept constant. Alternative fuels in the form of non-crude oil resources are drawing considerable attention as a result of shrinking oil reserves, increasing petroleum costs and the need to reduce emissions of harmful pollutants. The most prevalent alternatives being considered are: Biogas such as ethanol, methanol and biodiesel can be produced from the fermentation of food crops (sugar cane, corn, cereals, etc. Their production, however, requires large harvesting areas that may compete with other types of land use. Besides, it is estimated that one hectare of wheat produces less than 1,000 liters of transportation fuel per year which represents the amount of fuel consumed by one passenger car traveling 10,000 kilometers per year. This limit is related to the capacity of plants to absorb solar energy and transform it through photosynthesis.

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The complexity of the topography is often a good indicator of the level of detour erectile dysfunction what age generic extra super cialis 100 mg visa. Measures the territorial occupation of a transport network in terms of km of links (L) per square kilometers of surface (S). The relationship between the total length of the graph L(G) and the distance along its diameter D(d). It is a measure of distance per units of diameter and an indicator of the shape of a network. Adding new nodes will cause a decrease of Eta as the average length per link declines. Measures the function of a node, which is the average amount of traf c per intersection. Measures the level of connectivity in a graph and is expressed by the relationship between the number of links (e) over the number of nodes (v). In a network with a xed number of nodes, the higher the number of links, the higher the number of paths possible in the network. The rich-club coef cient is the Beta index applied to relations among larger order (degree) nodes; it veri es whether the connectivity is higher among larger degree nodes than for the whole network. A measure of connectivity which evaluates the number of cycles in a graph in comparison with the maximum number of cycles. It is very rare that a network will have an alpha value of 1, because this would imply very serious redundancies. This index is also called Meshedness Coef cient in the literature on planar networks. While graph A has no cycles, graph D has the maximum possible number of cycles for a planar graph. A measure of connectivity that considers the relationship between the number of observed links and the number of possible links. The value of gamma is between 0 and 1 where a value of 1 indicates a completely connected network and would be extremely unlikely in reality. Being solely based on the number of nodes and links, Alpha, Beta, and Gamma indices remain limited in revealing structural differences between two networks of equal size. More robust measures have thus been proposed by physics, which take into account the internal complexity of the graph. Measures and indices at the node level Numerous measures exist for highlighting the situation of a node in a network. The number of its attached links and is a simple but effective measure of nodal importance. The higher its value, the more a node is important in a graph as many links converge to it. Hub nodes have a high order, while terminal points have an order that can be as low as 1. A perfect hub would have its order equal to the summation of all the orders of the other nodes in the graph and a perfect spoke would have an order of 1. The percentage of nodes directly connected in the entire graph is thus a measure of reachability. The difference between in-degree and out-degree in a directed graph (digraph) may underline interesting functions of some nodes as attractors or senders. The order may be calculated at different depths: adjacent nodes (depth 1), adjacent nodes of adjacent nodes (depth 2), etc. A measure of farness based on the number of links needed to reach the most distant node in the graph. A measure of accessibility representing the sum of the length of all shortest paths connecting all other nodes in the graph.

Concerns all the steps necessary to recover the transport capacity that was lost during the disaster erectile dysfunction foods to eat generic extra super cialis 100mg with amex. It can involve repairs, restarting services that were discontinued as well as investments in new and improved infrastructures, modes and terminals. The goal is to bring back the capacity and level of service to pre-disaster conditions. With the lessons learned from the disaster, more resilient infrastructure and networks are a likely outcome. The reconstruction time of transportation infrastructure tends to be slower than other infrastructure. Evidence from the 1995 Kobe earthquake underlines that electric power and telecommunications are rst restored in a matter of weeks. Road and rail infrastructure can take several months while for port infrastructure it can be a matter of years. Transport infrastructure, particularly terminals, are much more capital intensive than utilities and require specialized and heavy equipment for their repair or construction. If a port is shut down, other ports can generally be used (the same applies for air travel). While this is less ef cient as it involves longer routes for imports or exports, it remains in most cases economically feasible. In uenza can be one the most virulent among them because of its ability to mutate and be ef ciently transmitted through the respiratory route. In uenza pandemics are thus considered to be among the most signi cant threats to the welfare of the global population. An epidemic of infectious disease that spreads through human populations across a large area, even worldwide. One important factor why the Spanish Flu spread so quickly and so extensively was through modern transportation, which at the beginning of the twentieth century offered a global coverage. The virus was spread around the world by infected crews and passengers of ships and trains and severe epidemics occurred in shipyard and railway personnel. The next in uenza pandemic could be equally severe and widespread illness or absenteeism in freight transportation sectors can cause cascading disruptions of social and economic systems. With ubiquitous and fast transportation comes a quick and extensive diffusion of a communicable disease. From an epidemiological perspective, transportation can thus be considered as a vector, particularly for passenger transportation systems. The con guration of air transportation networks shapes the diffusion of pandemics. This issue concerns the early phases of a pandemic where transportation systems are likely to spread any outbreak at the global level. Once a pandemic takes place or immediately thereafter, the major concerns shift to freight distribution. Modern economic activities cannot be sustained without continuous deliveries of food, fuel, electricity and other resources. However, few events can be more disruptive than a pandemic as critical supply chains can essentially shut down. Disruptions in the continuity of distribution are potentially much more damaging than the pandemic itself. Vectors and velocities the more ef cient transportation, the more ef cient is the vector that can transmit an infectious disease. International and long distance transport such as air and rail, modes and terminals alike, concentrates passengers and increases the risk of exposure. In the past, this could be an advantage as a ship could be quarantined, since there was ample time during the voyage for an infection to carry its course and the symptoms to become apparent.

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It suggested that the expression of nitric oxide synthase can indeed be modulated by endogenous polyamines erectile dysfunction clinic raleigh buy extra super cialis amex, apparently confirming the original hypothesis of the grant. The secondary investigator highlighted the importance of early-stage knowledge production not captured by publications as a key knowledge production output from this grant. This included at least six abstracts published in a range of specialist journals, of which the most important in terms of its scope in summarising the research findings appeared in the Journal of Vascular Research (Morgan and Baydoun, 1996). This abstract outlined findings that suggested that changes in the pool of free polyamines in a particular cell type (macrophages) might affect the activity of the enzyme responsible for generating nitric oxide from L-arginine. The secondary investigator and a co-researcher in the laboratory also pulled together some of the key findings for a short chapter in a book titled the Biology of Nitric Oxide, which was published in 1998 (Baydoun and Morgan, the Biology of Nitric Oxide, 1998). Again, however, there are problems of attribution here, because the overlap between grants during this period means that it is difficult to be clear which provided the most significant input to the research that these publications summarise. From the perspectives of other researchers involved in this research, the impact of the grant was low. Although his research interest in endothelial cell biology remained strong after this grant ended, he moved away from direct research on polyamines. The postdoctoral fellow most directly involved in the research subsequently moved to take up a position at the University of Hertfordshire, where he is now a professor, but it is unclear how far this particular grant contributed to establishing his research career. Following the retirement of the secondary investigator, the link between polyamine transport, intracellular calcium ion concentration and nitric oxide synthesis was not pursued further by researchers in the laboratory. Moreover, although the topic of nitric oxide biosynthesis and competition for L-arginine utilisation remains popular, the main focus of this research is not directly within cardiovascular research (Boucher, Moali and Tenu, 1999). Finally, the contribution of the outputs from this particular grant to the sub-field of polyamine research seems to have been limited, although the secondary investigator continued to publish in this area well after his retirement. Key developments in the wider research field are shown above the line; grant-specific events below the line. Clear knowledge outputs from the grant are shown in red; clear training outputs in turquoise. However, as the grant progressed, the research team perfected a method for running a large number of assays simultaneously on 96-well microtitre plates, generating large volumes of data in the process. This was an important development, as the fragility of human umbilical endothelial cells in culture had long been a problem. It currently has 34 member countries and encourages cooperative activity in a number of areas through targeted funding. Table 25-1 shows, in point form and by impact category, some of the impacts, described more fully above, that have emerged from this grant. Table 25-1 Payback Impacts from case study Two full peer-reviewed academic papers Six abstracts One published book chapter Tacit knowledge transfer from the secondary investigator to a postdoctoral fellow in the laboratory (although the major contribution arguably derived from a grant that was awarded shortly afterwards) Tacit knowledge transfer from the secondary investigator to PhD students in the laboratory Refinement of cell-culture methods using 96-well microtitre plates to produce large datasets in short periods of time None None None Payback category Knowledge production Research targeting and capacity building Informing policy and product development Health and health sector benefits Broader social and economic benefits 25. This grant was a renewal of a previous grant and funding started in July 1991 and ran to July 1994. The research was led by Dr Robert Sheldon and conducted at the University of Calgary. The focus of the grant was a continuation of work to define the properties of a drug receptor for Class 1 antiarrhythmic drugs. The specific objective was to understand how Class 1 drugs bind to and block cardiac sodium channels. Around the time of this grant, there were a number of randomised clinical trials ongoing to study the effectiveness of antiarrhythmic drugs for the suppression of asymptomatic ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden cardiac death. Informed by the data, the safety board recommended that the trial should continue to assess the effectiveness of the third drug (moricizine), as no significant differences in terms of mortality were observed compared with placebo. Dr Sheldon indicated that, after the 1992 results emerged, the research they were doing changed focus as there seemed to be little clinical relevance to the proposed research. Ordered stimulation of the myocardium allows efficient contraction of the heart, thereby allowing blood to be pumped throughout the body. Cardiac arrhythmia is a term encompassing a large and varied group of conditions in which there is abnormal electrical activity in the heart. There are four classes of antiarrhythmic drugs according to the Vaughan Williams classification system (Vaughan, 1970). Each Class has a different mechanism or target of action: Class I agents interfere with the sodium (Na+) channel. They are named as such because they decrease the excitogenicity of the plasma membrane.

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About the Security Industries Authority Staff

The Security Industies Authority is headed by a Registrar as the CEO and has thirteen (13) other staff members from all four (4) regions of the country working under him. These includes the Manager Finance and Administration, Manager Licensing and Compliance and four (4) Regional inspectors(MOMASE, Islands, Highland and Southern).

The Inspectors job are very challenging because they are at the front line of enforcement to ensure that private security companies are compliant with the provisions of the Security Protection Act to operate a security company. Most of them are former officers of the Royal PNG Constabulary. Apart from them we also have a efficient staff made up of the Executive Secretary, Accounts Officer, HR Officer , I.T Officer & an Office Janitor in Head Office Port Moresby while Admin Assistance/ Driver and an Office Admin/ Reception in Lae Momase & Highlands Region branch office.

Staff Profiles

paul

Mr. Paul Kingston Isari

Registrar & CEO of PNG Security Industries Authority

philip

Mr. Philip Gene, BAC, CPA PNG

Manager Finance & Administration

spencer

Mr. Spencer Gelo

Manager Licencing & Compliance

POM Office Staff

Front left – right Ms Margaret Biskum- Security Inspector New Guinea Islands, Ms Alicia Nana – Executive Secretary & Mrs Mackey Kembi Office Janitor

Back left – right Mr. Rinson Ngale – Security Inspector NCD/Southern Region, Mr. Emmanuel Tumbe HR Officer, Mr. Elijah Fave – Accounts Officer, Mr. Andrew Kaiap – I.T Officer

leo-staff

Lae Office Staff

Front left – right Ms Nelison Roberts – Office Secretary / Reception , Mr. Elvis Otare – Office Admin Assistance / Driver & Acting Momase Region Inspector

Back left – right Vacant – Office Manager & Security Inspector Momase Region, Mr. Pius Moi – Acting Office Manager Security Inspector Highlands Region

Security Industries Authority organizational chart

organization-chart

Vacancies for Council Representatives from the Security
Industry to sit in the Council

The Security Industries Authority currently does not have any vacant Council Representative position. There in total six (6) nominated representative from Security Industries in the council.(see SIA Council)

Qualified candidates will be made known here if there is a vacant in Council Representative positions.

Security Industries Authority Position Vacancies

SIA Currently has no vacancy positions available. Public will be notified for any positions available in the future.

Criteria for appointment to the Security Industries Council

  1. The candidates must have a sound knowledge in the operations of private security companies and are quite versed with the Security Protection Act 2004.
  2. The candidates shall not be currently employed in any licensed security companies that are currently registered with the Security Industries Authority or were not previously employed by any licensed security companies.
  3. The candidates shall not be a current owner or a shareholder of a licensed security company currently registered with the Security Industries Authority and the IPA (Investment promotion Authority).
  4. The candidates shall not be a previous owner or a shareholder of a licensed security company registered with the Security Industries Authority or with the IPA. (Investment promotion Authority).
  5. Interested persons may submit their application with a CV with three (3) references named and attached with their latest passport size photos.
  6. Both male and females are encouraged to participate.
  7. Only registered security companies and permitted security guards will participate in the nominations.
  8. All candidates shall be subjected to a fit and proper persons test before they are formally appointed for 3 years term by the Minister for Police & Internal Security.

For enquiries on this matter

Visit us at the Top floor of the Former Fraud Squad blue building, Gorobe Street, Badili, 2 Mile, Port Moresby NCD or Lae at Post Office Building, second street, top floor, suite # 14, Lae Morobe Province or write to the Chairman Security Industries Council PO BOX 80 Port Moresby National capital District. You can also contact Manager Licensing & Compliance – Mr. Spencer Gelo on telephone 3239851 / 3257930, or email executivesecretary@sia.gov.pg

Invitation to the Stake Holders and the Industry to make a submission on the amendments to current security Protection Act

The Registrar now invites all the registered security companies, service receivers and interested stake holders for their written submission to amend the current Security Protection Act to cover many grey areas of the law.

The submissions should clearly state what provisions of the current Security Protection Act 2004 and the Security Protection regulation 2012 are to be amended to enhance the growth of the industry. This is necessary in light of numerous complaints from the security companies and interested stake holders of the short falls in the current Act which is said to be hindering the growth of the industry.

All submissions must be dropped at The Authority Head Office: Former Fraud Squad Office, Top Floor, Gorobe Street, 2 Mile Drive, Badili,Boroko NCD in Port Moresby. They can also be posted or emailed using the address on the last page. Copies of the current Security Protection Act 2004 can be obtained at the Security Industries Authority office for K35 to use as a guide to prepare the submissions.

Appointment to the Board of Complaints

The Security Industries Authority in compliance with section 57 of the Security Protection Act 2004 has already advertised in the media in early February 2013 seeking for two (2) interested persons to sit on the Board of Complaints.

The purposes of the Board of Complaints is to hear allegations made against licensed security companies by the general public and to award appropriate disciplinary penalties to protect the integrity of the security industry. Several applications have already been received and the short listed candidates will be advised in writing by the chairman shortly before a final selection is made for their three (3) yeas appointments by the Minister for Police and Internal Security.