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In addition depression existential crisis buy prozac 20 mg cheap, there is a moral argument that humans have a responsibility to inflict as little harm as possible on other species. The three greatest proximate threats to biodiversity are habitat loss, overharvesting, and introduction of exotic species. The first two of these are a direct result of human this OpenStax book is available for free at cnx. A fourth major cause of extinction, anthropogenic climate change, has not yet had a large impact, but it is predicted to become significant during this century. Global climate change is also a consequence of human population needs for energy and the use of fossil fuels to meet those needs (Figure 47. Environmental issues, such as toxic pollution, have specific targeted effects on species, but they are not generally seen as threats at the magnitude of the others. Scientists predict that the addition of this "greenhouse gas" to the atmosphere is resulting in climate change that will significantly impact biodiversity in the coming century. Elimination of their ecosystem-whether it is a forest, a desert, a grassland, a freshwater estuarine, or a marine environment-will kill the individuals in the species. Human destruction of habitats accelerated in the latter half of the twentieth century. Palm oil is used in many products including food products, cosmetics, and biodiesel in Europe. In the humid tropics where forest loss is primarily from timber extraction, 272,000 km2 was lost out of a global total of 11,564,000 km2 (or 2. In the tropics, these losses certainly also represent the extinction of species because of high levels of endemism. These animals are examples of the exceptional biodiversity of (c) the islands of Sumatra and Borneo. Other species include the (b) Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) and the (d) Sumatran elephant (Elephas maximus sumatranus), both critically endangered species. Most of the illegal products are imported from countries that act as intermediaries and are not the originators of the wood. How is it possible to determine if a wood product, such as flooring, was harvested sustainably or even legally While it would be great if there was a list of legal versus illegal wood products, it is not that simple. Logging and forest management laws vary from country to country; what is illegal in one country may be legal in another. It is always a good idea to ask questions about where a wood product came from and how the supplier knows that it was harvested legally. Rivers and streams are important ecosystems and are frequently modified through land development and from damming or water removal. Differing flow regimes can reduce or eliminate populations that are adapted to these changes in flow patterns. For example, an estimated 91percent of river lengths in the United States have been developed: they have modifications like dams, to create energy or store water; levees, to prevent flooding; or dredging or rerouting, to create land that is more suitable for human development. Many fish species in the United States, especially rare species or species with restricted distributions, have seen declines caused by river damming and habitat loss. Research has confirmed that species of amphibians that must carry out parts of their life cycles in both aquatic and terrestrial habitats have a greater chance of suffering population declines and extinction because of the increased likelihood that one of their habitats or access between them will be lost. Overharvesting Overharvesting is a serious threat to many species, but particularly to aquatic species. There are many examples of regulated commercial fisheries monitored by fisheries scientists that have nevertheless collapsed. While it was a hugely productive fishery for 400 years, the introduction of modern factory trawlers in the 1980s and the pressure on the fishery led to it becoming unsustainable. Common resources are subject to an economic pressure known as the tragedy of the commons in which essentially no fisher has a motivation to exercise restraint in harvesting a fishery when it is not owned by that fisher.

Elicitors (These are plant cell wall pieces traveling down the phloem indicating damage has occurred above depression knee pain order prozac 20mg without prescription. Ligand (protein hormone) attaching to the membrane receptor proteins causes a signal-transduction pathway to begin. Steroid (lipid ligand) hormones go through the phospholipid bilayer portion of the membrane to find its receptor protein in the cytoplasm. To create sperm and eggs, certain diploid cells have to undergo Meiosis, which involves two divisions of chromosomes to become haploid cells. Fragmentation and regeneration - Seen in the Platyhelminthes (flatworms) and Echinoderms (starfish). This is followed by producing a cleavage furrow (cytokinesis) to produce 2 new cells, that are referred to as clones. Bacterial Variation Processes (Remember, variation increases survival chances within a changing environment. Essentially, it is a process just like Binary Fission, except that they have a nucleus with linear chromosomes and organelles in the cytoplasm; so therefore, there is a G2 phase and it is followed by Mitosis and Cytokinesis. This allows the organism to reproduce much faster and colonize a dead organism for food and reduce competition with other organisms. Haploid spores can be produced by Mitosis and then released to reproduce, in favorable environments, very quickly. This fusion together of hyphae results in heterokaryon (Means "different nuclei") or Dikaryotic (Means "two nuclei"). Sporophyte (2n) this generation produces diploid spores that undergo Meiosis to become haploid (n) spores. The haploid spores are released (in the case of the seedless plants) into the environment or retained in the case of gymnosperms and angiosperms (the seed producing plants). Released spores hopefully will find a suitable environment to grow and produce gametophyte. The haploid gametophyte (n) produces haploid gametes that are released if male and retained if female. The male gamete, sperm, travels to the female gamete, egg, to fertilize and form a diploid zygote.

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Name two different cellular functions that require energy that parallel human energy-requiring functions anxiety disorder treatment best prozac 40mg. Explain in your own words the difference between a spontaneous reaction and one that occurs instantaneously, and what causes this difference. Describe the position of the transition state on a vertical energy scale, from low to high, relative to the position of the reactants and products, for both endergonic and exergonic reactions. Imagine an elaborate ant farm with tunnels and passageways through the sand where ants live in a large community. In which of these two scenarios, before or after the earthquake, was the ant farm system in a state of higher or lower entropy This type of generating plant starts with underground thermal energy (heat) and transforms it into electrical energy that will be transported to homes and factories. Like a generating plant, plants and animals also must take in energy from the environment and convert it into a form that their cells can use. In the process of photosynthesis, plants and other photosynthetic producers take in energy in the form of light (solar energy) and convert it into chemical energy, glucose, which stores this energy in its chemical bonds. Then, a series of metabolic pathways, collectively called cellular respiration, extracts the energy from the bonds in glucose and converts it into a form that all living things can use-both producers, such as plants, and consumers, such as animals. An oxidation reaction strips an electron from an atom in a compound, and the addition of this electron to another compound is a reduction reaction. Because oxidation and reduction usually occur together, these pairs of reactions are called oxidation reduction reactions, or redox reactions. Electrons and Energy the removal of an electron from a molecule, oxidizing it, results in a decrease in potential energy in the oxidized compound. The electron (sometimes as part of a hydrogen atom), does not remain unbonded, however, in the cytoplasm of a cell. Rather, the electron is shifted to a second compound, reducing the second compound. The shift of an electron from one compound to another removes some potential energy from the first compound (the oxidized compound) and increases the potential energy of the second compound (the reduced compound). The transfer of electrons between molecules is important because most of the energy stored in atoms and used to fuel cell functions is in the form of high-energy electrons. The transfer of energy in the form of electrons allows the cell to transfer and use energy in an incremental fashion-in small packages rather than in a single, destructive burst. This chapter focuses on the extraction of energy from food; you will see that as you track the path of the transfers, you are tracking the path of electrons moving through metabolic pathways. Electron Carriers In living systems, a small class of compounds functions as electron shuttles: They bind and carry high-energy electrons between compounds in pathways. The principal electron carriers we will consider are derived from the B vitamin group and are derivatives of nucleotides. These compounds can be easily reduced (that is, they accept electrons) or oxidized (they lose electrons). Excess free energy would result in an increase of heat in the cell, which would result in excessive thermal motion that could damage and then destroy the cell. Rather, a cell must be able to handle that energy in a way that enables the cell to store energy safely and release it for use only as needed. The energy is used to do work by the cell, usually by the released phosphate binding to another molecule, activating it. In this way, the cell performs work, pumping ions against their electrochemical gradients. The negative charges on the phosphate group naturally repel each other, requiring energy to bond them together and releasing energy when these bonds are broken. In nearly every living thing on earth, the energy comes from the metabolism of glucose. Phosphorylation Recall that, in some chemical reactions, enzymes may bind to several substrates that react with each other on the enzyme, forming an intermediate complex. This very direct method of phosphorylation is called substrate-level phosphorylation. The educational preparation for this profession requires a college education, followed by medical school with a specialization in medical genetics. Medical geneticists can be board certified by the American Board of Medical Genetics and go on to become associated with professional organizations devoted to the study of mitochondrial diseases, such as the Mitochondrial Medicine Society and the Society for Inherited Metabolic Disease. Glycolysis is the first step in the breakdown of glucose to extract energy for cellular metabolism.

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In the appendicular skeleton bipolar depression with psychosis prozac 40 mg with mastercard, the shoulder girdle of therian mammals is modified from that of other vertebrates in that it does not possess a procoracoid bone or an interclavicle, and the scapula is the dominant bone. Mammals evolved from therapsids in the late Triassic period, as the earliest known mammal fossils are from the early Jurassic period, some 205 million years ago. Mammals first began to diversify in the Mesozoic Era, from the Jurassic to the Cretaceous periods, although most of these mammals were extinct by the end of the Mesozoic. During the Cretaceous period, another radiation of mammals began and continued through the Cenozoic Era, about 65 million years ago. Living Mammals the eutherians, or placental mammals, and the marsupials together comprise the clade of therian mammals. There are three living species of monotremes: the platypus and two species of echidnas, or spiny anteaters. The leatherybeaked platypus belongs to the family Ornithorhynchidae ("bird beak"), whereas echidnas belong to the family Tachyglossidae ("sticky tongue") (Figure 29. The platypus and one species of echidna are found in Australia, and the other species of echidna is found in New Guinea. Monotremes are unique among mammals as they lay eggs, rather than giving birth to live young. The shells of their eggs are not like the hard shells of birds, but are a leathery shell, similar to the shells of reptile eggs. Australian marsupials include the kangaroo, koala, bandicoot, Tasmanian devil (Figure 29. Most species of marsupials possess a pouch in which the very premature young reside after birth, receiving milk and continuing to develop. Marsupials differ from eutherians in that there is a less complex placental connection: the young are born at an extremely early age and latch onto the nipple within the pouch. Some examples are Insectivora, the insect eaters; Edentata, the toothless anteaters; Rodentia, the rodents; Cetacea, the aquatic mammals including whales; Carnivora, carnivorous mammals including dogs, cats, and bears; and Primates, which includes humans. Eutherian mammals are sometimes called placental mammals because all species possess a complex placenta that connects a fetus to the mother, allowing for gas, fluid, and nutrient exchange. While other mammals possess a less complex placenta or briefly have a placenta, all eutherians possess a complex placenta during gestation. Non-human primates live primarily in the tropical or subtropical regions of South America, Africa, and Asia. The characteristics and evolution of primates is of particular interest to us as it allows us to understand the evolution of our own species. This arboreal heritage of primates has resulted in hands and feet that are adapted for brachiation, or climbing and swinging through trees. These adaptations include, but are not limited to: 1) a rotating shoulder joint, 2) a big toe that is widely separated from the other toes and thumbs, which are widely separated from fingers (except humans), which allow for gripping branches, 3) stereoscopic vision, two overlapping fields of vision from the eyes, which allows for the perception of depth and gauging distance. Other characteristics of primates are brains that are larger than those of most other mammals, claws that have been modified into flattened nails, typically only one offspring per pregnancy, and a trend toward holding the body upright. Prosimians include the bush babies of Africa, the lemurs of Madagascar, and the lorises, pottos, and tarsiers of Southeast Asia. In general, prosimians tend to be nocturnal (in contrast to diurnal anthropoids) and exhibit a smaller size and smaller brain than anthropoids. Evolution of Primates the first primate-like mammals are referred to as proto-primates. These proto-primates remain largely mysterious creatures until more fossil evidence becomes available. The oldest known primate-like mammals with a relatively robust fossil record is Plesiadapis (although some researchers do not agree that Plesiadapis was a protoprimate). Plesiadapiforms were protoprimates that had some features of the teeth and skeleton in common with true primates. They were found in North America and Europe in the Cenozoic and went extinct by the end of the Eocene. The first true primates were found in North America, Europe, Asia, and Africa in the Eocene Epoch.

The fact that an organization or Website is referred to in this work as a citation and/or a potential source of further information does not mean that the author or the publisher endorses the information the organization or Website may provide or recommendations it may make anxiety over the counter medication cheap prozac 60mg with visa. Further, readers should be aware that Internet Websites listed in this work may have changed or disappeared between when this work was written and when it is read. No warranty may be created or extended by any promotional statements for this work. Neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for any damages arising herefrom. Essentials of clinical immunology / Helen Chapel, Mansel Haeney, Siraj Misbah, Neil Snowden. Cover image: Tim Vernon / Science Photo Library Cover design by Visual Philosophy Set in 10/12 pt Adobe Garamond Pro by Toppan Best-set Premedia Limited 1 2014 Contents Preface to the Sixth Edition Preface to the First Edition How to Use Your Textbook About the Companion Website Key to Illustrations iv v vi ix x 1 BasicComponents:StructureandFunction 2 Infection 3 Immunodeficiency 4 AnaphylaxisandAllergy 5 Autoimmunity 6 LymphoproliferativeDisorders 7 ImmuneManipulation 8 Transplantation 9 KidneyDiseases 10 JointsandMuscles 11 SkinDiseases 12 EyeDiseases 13 ChestDiseases 14 GastrointestinalandLiverDiseases 15 EndocrinologyandDiabetes 16 Non-MalignantHaematologicalDiseases 17 Neuroimmunology 18 ImmunologicalDiseasesinPregnancy 19 TechniquesinClinicalImmunology Appendix: Further Resources Index 1 34 54 86 105 121 137 157 171 194 219 236 245 263 288 300 312 324 332 351 353 Preface to the Sixth Edition this is the last edition of the book in this format and the first as a digital edition; some progress since the first edition in 1984. During this time there have been fantastic advances in basic immunology and clinical applications, so that many of the earlier concepts are outmoded, redundant or just wrong. Keeping up to date is an increasingly time consuming and difficult task, not least to keep pruning exciting new findings in basic immunology that do not yet add much to our overall understanding of the important role of the immune system in health and disease. In addition, Neil Snowden has moved to full-time rheumatology and clinical administration and was not able to take part and Siraj Misbah has become Clinical Lead in Immunology and is active on any number of national and international committees. So that left only one of the four, who is therefore responsible for all the mistakes in this edition. Tom has read and updated all the clinical chapters with me, as well as providing enthusiasm and encouragement to complete the task. I am also grateful to Vojtech Thon, Associate Professor in Brno, who has not only translated this edition into the Czech language but checked the English version as he went along; a mammoth task that he has undertaken with great determination and precision. This edition includes a rewrite of Chapter 1 since there is so much new information about Basic Immunology compared with only 6 years ago. The chapter on Pregnancy has been revised to include associated immunological diseases only, since the basic immunology of pregnancy is an area of specialised interest rather than mainstream Clinical Immunology. For the same reason, I have resisted adding a whole chapter on Tumour Immunology (though this can be found in the French edition for those who are really keen! For students who may read older texts, I have left in comments on some of the now outdated tests or therapies and, where I can, have provided explanations as to why they have been superseded, so that students are not misled. The rapid growth in primary immunodeficiencies and the discovery of the many new genes in various complex conditions have shown that many of the genes mutated in primary immunodeficiencies are multifunctional; furthermore, some are involved in several important/central pathways whilst others are redundant. It has been difficult to choose those that are important to students of Clinical Immunology and I have included only a small selection of examples. As before, the bold type in the text indicates the content of each paragraph; really important points are identified by italics. My thanks for help with particular chapters go to Beth Psaila (also my daughter-in-law), who rewrote much of the lymphoproliferation chapter, Georg Hollander, who kept me straight on autoimmunity and tolerance as well as new basic concepts, Meilyn Hew for reading the practical chapter and Siraj Misbah for making sure that my rheumatology was up to date. This edition would not have happened without Martin Davies at Wiley-Blackwell, who talked me into it, and Karen Moore, who edited the final revised version. Helen Chapel Preface to the First Edition Immunology is now a well-developed basic science and much is known of the normal physiology of the immune system in both mice and men. The application of this knowledge to human pathology has lagged behind research, and immunologists are often accused of practising a science which has little relevance to clinical medicine. It is hoped that this book will point out to both medical students and practising clinicians that clinical immunology is a subject which is useful for the diagnosis and management of a great number and variety of human disease. Diseases are discussed by organ involvement, and illustrative case histories are used to show the usefulness (or otherwise) of immunological investigations in the management of these patients. While practising clinicians may find the case histories irksome, we hope they will find the application of immunology illuminating and interesting. The student should gain some perspective of clinical immunology from the case histories, which are selected for their relevance to the topic we are discussing, as this is not a textbook of general medicine. Those who have forgotten, or who need some revision of, basic immunological ideas will find them condensed in Chapter 1. This chapter is not intended to supplant longer texts of basic immunology but merely to provide a springboard for chapters which follow. Professor Andrew McMichael kindly contributed to this chapter and ensured that it was up-to-date.

Additional information:

About the Security Industries Authority Staff

The Security Industies Authority is headed by a Registrar as the CEO and has thirteen (13) other staff members from all four (4) regions of the country working under him. These includes the Manager Finance and Administration, Manager Licensing and Compliance and four (4) Regional inspectors(MOMASE, Islands, Highland and Southern).

The Inspectors job are very challenging because they are at the front line of enforcement to ensure that private security companies are compliant with the provisions of the Security Protection Act to operate a security company. Most of them are former officers of the Royal PNG Constabulary. Apart from them we also have a efficient staff made up of the Executive Secretary, Accounts Officer, HR Officer , I.T Officer & an Office Janitor in Head Office Port Moresby while Admin Assistance/ Driver and an Office Admin/ Reception in Lae Momase & Highlands Region branch office.

Staff Profiles


Mr. Paul Kingston Isari

Registrar & CEO of PNG Security Industries Authority


Mr. Philip Gene, BAC, CPA PNG

Manager Finance & Administration


Mr. Spencer Gelo

Manager Licencing & Compliance

POM Office Staff

Front left – right Ms Margaret Biskum- Security Inspector New Guinea Islands, Ms Alicia Nana – Executive Secretary & Mrs Mackey Kembi Office Janitor

Back left – right Mr. Rinson Ngale – Security Inspector NCD/Southern Region, Mr. Emmanuel Tumbe HR Officer, Mr. Elijah Fave – Accounts Officer, Mr. Andrew Kaiap – I.T Officer


Lae Office Staff

Front left – right Ms Nelison Roberts – Office Secretary / Reception , Mr. Elvis Otare – Office Admin Assistance / Driver & Acting Momase Region Inspector

Back left – right Vacant – Office Manager & Security Inspector Momase Region, Mr. Pius Moi – Acting Office Manager Security Inspector Highlands Region

Security Industries Authority organizational chart


Vacancies for Council Representatives from the Security
Industry to sit in the Council

The Security Industries Authority currently does not have any vacant Council Representative position. There in total six (6) nominated representative from Security Industries in the council.(see SIA Council)

Qualified candidates will be made known here if there is a vacant in Council Representative positions.

Security Industries Authority Position Vacancies

SIA Currently has no vacancy positions available. Public will be notified for any positions available in the future.

Criteria for appointment to the Security Industries Council

  1. The candidates must have a sound knowledge in the operations of private security companies and are quite versed with the Security Protection Act 2004.
  2. The candidates shall not be currently employed in any licensed security companies that are currently registered with the Security Industries Authority or were not previously employed by any licensed security companies.
  3. The candidates shall not be a current owner or a shareholder of a licensed security company currently registered with the Security Industries Authority and the IPA (Investment promotion Authority).
  4. The candidates shall not be a previous owner or a shareholder of a licensed security company registered with the Security Industries Authority or with the IPA. (Investment promotion Authority).
  5. Interested persons may submit their application with a CV with three (3) references named and attached with their latest passport size photos.
  6. Both male and females are encouraged to participate.
  7. Only registered security companies and permitted security guards will participate in the nominations.
  8. All candidates shall be subjected to a fit and proper persons test before they are formally appointed for 3 years term by the Minister for Police & Internal Security.

For enquiries on this matter

Visit us at the Top floor of the Former Fraud Squad blue building, Gorobe Street, Badili, 2 Mile, Port Moresby NCD or Lae at Post Office Building, second street, top floor, suite # 14, Lae Morobe Province or write to the Chairman Security Industries Council PO BOX 80 Port Moresby National capital District. You can also contact Manager Licensing & Compliance – Mr. Spencer Gelo on telephone 3239851 / 3257930, or email executivesecretary@sia.gov.pg

Invitation to the Stake Holders and the Industry to make a submission on the amendments to current security Protection Act

The Registrar now invites all the registered security companies, service receivers and interested stake holders for their written submission to amend the current Security Protection Act to cover many grey areas of the law.

The submissions should clearly state what provisions of the current Security Protection Act 2004 and the Security Protection regulation 2012 are to be amended to enhance the growth of the industry. This is necessary in light of numerous complaints from the security companies and interested stake holders of the short falls in the current Act which is said to be hindering the growth of the industry.

All submissions must be dropped at The Authority Head Office: Former Fraud Squad Office, Top Floor, Gorobe Street, 2 Mile Drive, Badili,Boroko NCD in Port Moresby. They can also be posted or emailed using the address on the last page. Copies of the current Security Protection Act 2004 can be obtained at the Security Industries Authority office for K35 to use as a guide to prepare the submissions.

Appointment to the Board of Complaints

The Security Industries Authority in compliance with section 57 of the Security Protection Act 2004 has already advertised in the media in early February 2013 seeking for two (2) interested persons to sit on the Board of Complaints.

The purposes of the Board of Complaints is to hear allegations made against licensed security companies by the general public and to award appropriate disciplinary penalties to protect the integrity of the security industry. Several applications have already been received and the short listed candidates will be advised in writing by the chairman shortly before a final selection is made for their three (3) yeas appointments by the Minister for Police and Internal Security.