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But how these processes are similar and distinct both phenomenologically and neurally requires further exploration medicine synonym buy 5mg zyprexa with visa. Interestingly, compared to healthy controls, during an emotion regulation of conflict task, people with generalized anxiety disorder failed to adapt behaviorally to emotional conflict and to activate their ventral cingulate and dampen amygdalar activity (Egner, Etkin, Gale, & Hirsch, 2008; Etkin et al. So there appears to be a breakdown of their defense mechanisms, and the opposite neural reaction to what occurs during repression or dissociation, where amygdala activation is diminished as an adaptive response to stressors to protect the ego. Investigators need to further explore what happens when adaptive defenses become dysfunctional-for example, when used excessively or not at all-and determine when defense mechanisms are adaptive, when they are pathological, and how this distinction can be made at the neural level. Another intriguing question is: can emotion regulation occur without the person experiencing the triggering emotion consciously? People use emotionregulation strategies often, and it can become habitual (Gross, Richards, & John, 2006). But when the triggering emotion is experienced unconsciously and emotion regulation occurs implicitly (akin to repression), how can a person report when it is occurring, and how can we measure this process in the laboratory? Bell claims that my statement, "People can feel things without knowing they feel them, and they can act on feelings of which they are unaware," is contradictory because "feeling" is generally defined as "the conscious subjective experience of emotion. If, as studies suggest, stimuli (emotive or cognitive) that subjects are subjectively unaware of can change their behavior and motivate them, could it be said that these stimuli are being "experienced unconsciously"? As Etkin states, despite the obvious overlap, the exact relationship between psychodynamic theories of unconscious processes and the neural basis of implicit emotion-regulation processes is unclear. We need to work on merging the exciting new findings from affective neuroscience with psychoanalytic concepts that have been observed clinically for over a century. In further support of my call to arms, Eric Fertuck advocates the "(re)convergence of neuroscientific and psychoanalytic conceptions. Perhaps this "rediscovery" of psychoanalytic concepts by neuroscientist will spark a counter-interest by analysts to , for example, strive to more precisely define the terms they use regularly, which will allow neuroscientists to better study their neural basis. Psychoanalysts can also make conceptual contributions to neuroscience, such as the idea that defensive processes can operate differentially in different people, depending on things like variations in maturity and personality organization (Fertuck). Extrapolating from there, individual differences in underlying neurobiology and related genetic variations are also important. Researchers may one day be able to link genetic variations and neurobiological predispositions to individual differences in defensive styles, and subsequently be able to predict which coping mechanisms particular individuals will be more likely to use and who might be more resilient to psychological stressors. Therapists could then adapt and custom-tailor their techniques based on the biological biases of the patient. For example, variations in genes that code for serotonin receptors are associated with impulsivity and aggression (Hollander & Berlin, 2008). So, people who possess an "impulsive" genotype may be less apt to use mechanism like repression or suppression and may need training on how to employ alternative defenses to control their impulses. Attention can enhance or bias one coalition of neurons (representing the attended object) at the expenses of others (representing nonattended stimuli) (Lee, Itti, Koch, & Braun, 1999) and may be necessary for many, but not all, forms of conscious perception (Koch & Tsuchiya, 2007). For example, psychophysical studies have reported that attention enhances spatial resolution (Yeshurun, Montagna, & Carrasco, 2008) and perceived contrast of visual stimuli (Liu, Abrams, & Carrasco, 2009) by boosting early sensory processing in the visual cortex (Stцrmer, McDonald, & Hillyard, 2009). So, otherwise repressed thoughts, emotions, or memories may be reintegrated into the conscious mind in a healthy, nonanxiety-provoking way when attention is brought to them during therapy. And neural plasticity may explain some of the long-term positive effects that continue to occur even after the therapy session has ended. Along these lines, Christof Koch suggests that techniques in basic neuroscience research, such as singlecell recording studies in behaving animals, are the next level of research that needs to be applied to psychoanalytic concepts. But can basic neuroscience techniques like single-cell recording, although very precise with exceptional temporal resolution, really scale up to such complex concepts as defensive processes which involve much more than just seeing a presented stimulus or not? Can one make the conceptual leap, for example, from the neural mechanisms that control phenomena like binocular suppression-that is, suppression on the sensory level-to the highly charged, emotive repression Freud was referring to? Can single cells firing to masked incoming stimuli translate into coding for highly intricate psychoanalytic unconscious processes? While neurons are the basic units by which this translation will occur, it is unlikely to take place on the scale of single neurons, or even hundreds of neurons firing, but, rather, with large coalitions of neurons on the order of thousands firing, and at the circuit level, which is not adequately captured by single-cell recording. Another technique that Koch refers to that seems more encouraging is "optogentics," which allows researchers to activate or deactivate precise neural circuits that may then be used in inventive ways to measure things like voluntary suppression.


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The fact that hand movement is present is seen by the patient (and often medical and therapy staff) as a positive indicator of recovery with an expectation that practise of such movement will improve control and function symptoms 7dp5dt 10mg zyprexa with mastercard. The therapist who can apply knowledge of movement control, however, will recognise sparing distal activity as a positive feature but will immediately be considering the key indicator that this movement is only demonstrated within supported postures. The key requirements of postural control for independent upper limb movement would be evaluated in order to determine the potential for the patient to access independent limb movement and function in the longer term. There may, in fact, be significant weakness of the trunk and lower limb on the side of the lesion with resultant compensatory fixation over the less-affected lower limb in a standing posture. In this case, the therapist not only recognises the potential for further hand movement and function but also acknowledges that this cannot be realised unless the efficiency of the current postural control and balance strategy is improved. In fact, there would be a recognition that hand movement may well deteriorate unless the underlying postural control deficits, for example, ipsilateral lower limb weakness, are addressed. The attention to quality of movement, therefore, is not necessarily about a quest for aesthetically pleasing movement but more about the movement control requirements that will positively influence the fulfilment of future potential in activities of daily living. The exploration of potential for improvement with the manipulation of afferent input during assessment results in an inevitable interaction and integration of assessment and treatment. Impairments that are observed as being critical to current movement performance are prioritised and evaluated with the aim of reducing their impact. If, for example, the therapist observes the patient moving from sitting to standing with limited involvement of the affected lower limb, she may consider a number of possible reasons for this based upon her observations. This list is not exhaustive but highlights the consideration of factors, both directly related to the observed problem, in this case the lower limb weakness, and factors that can indirectly affect the problem such as lack of core stability or loss of perceptual representation of body parts within the central nervous system (body schema). A decision may be made as to which impairment the therapist feels is the most significant interference, and this can be explored with a brief but immediate intervention. Using the examples given earlier, the foot mal-alignment could be addressed with active mobilisation in order to make possible a better foot-tofloor contact as a basis for selective extension to be accessed in the lower limb. The outcome is immediately observed during repetition of the sit-to-stand task post this intervention in order to establish the significance of this particular impairment. Alternatively, if a lack of core stability is thought to be the main interference, the therapist may use specific handling in order to facilitate an increase in postural muscle activity within the lumbopelvic/hip complex and observe whether this enables more involvement of the less active lower limb during sitting and standing. Therefore, aspects of intervention are used in order to assist the clinical reasoning process within the assessment (Doody & McAteer 2002; Hayes Fleming & Mattingly 2008). Clinical practice involves a systematic approach to the identification and appraisal of key impairments related to significant functional limitations. The responsiveness of the therapist to use critical cues related to movement efficiency is fundamental to this aspect of practice and is enhanced by a detailed knowledge and understanding of human movement production and motor control (Jensen et al. Finally, due to the fact that assessment is individual to each person and their individual presentation, and because it can take place within a range of environments it must be flexible with regard to content and progression whilst retaining its systematic element. The ability to combine this responsive and flexible approach to systematic enquiry is demanding in terms of clinical reasoning skills and once again is facilitated by a sound knowledge base. There is a suspicion that named approaches such as the Bobath Concept represent guru-led philosophies and the perpetuation of traditional beliefs related to the nature and impact of presenting impairments on function, the specific effects of therapeutic intervention and the actual goals of the intervention process (Turner & Allan Whitfield 1999; Rothstein 2004). In addition to this, there are significant problems in using a positivist research methodology such as the randomised controlled trial to test the effectiveness of a theoretical framework for assessment and treatment (Higgs et al. The necessary constraint of a controlled trial in standardising intervention for a given homogenous group of subjects is a direct contradiction of the application of a set of principles to individual clinical presentations and social and psychological circumstances. Attempts have been made to compare the effectiveness of the Bobath Concept with control interventions or other methodologies. As one may predict, these have essentially been inconclusive (Paci 2003; van Vliet et al. The Bobath Concept as currently practised is entirely supportive of the philosophy of evidence-based practice and fully embraces the use of clinical evidence in the treatment and management of patients. It recognises, however, the limitations of current research and the need for the application of knowledge from the basic sciences to individual clinical situations. The fundamental areas of knowledge underpinning assessment and decision-making using the Bobath Concept are movement analyses, including kinetics, 52 Assessment and Clinical Reasoning in the Bobath Concept kinematics and biomechanics, allied to an appreciation of associated neuroscience in the areas of motor control, neuroplasticity and muscle and motor learning (Raine 2006, 2007).

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The patient also displays cognitive deficits in orientation medicine x ed order zyprexa 20mg online, memory, and attention, which indicate that there might be further cortical or subcortical involvement. The differential diagnosis should consider subacute encephalopathies that present with this constellation of findings. These findings are consistent with limbic encephalitis; however, other autoimmune and infectious etiologies should be ruled out. Serum autoimmune and inflammatory workup including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, antinuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factor, Sjцgren syndrome A/Sjцgren syndrome B, angiotensin-converting enzyme, antithyroid peroxidase, and antithyroglobulin were unremarkable. A paraneoplastic antibody panel (table e-1 on the Neurology Web site at Neurology. Can a diagnosis of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis be made in the absence of cancer or a paraneoplastic antibody? Corticosteroids were not given at this time due to his diabetes, psychiatric symptoms, and availability of plasma exchange. During a follow-up visit, the patient was initially alert but became progressively drowsy and unresponsive. He was readmitted to the hospital, with concern for status epilepticus or worsening of his underlying condition. He also received levetiracetam, which required uptitration to 1,500 mg twice daily to achieve control of the myoclonus. Four months after his discharge from the hospital, he experienced almost complete resolution of symptoms, with only sporadic myoclonus associated with insomnia. Cholfin: analysis and interpretation of data, imaging interpretation, critical revision of the manuscript. Restrepo: analysis and interpretation of data, imaging interpretation, critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content and supervision. Limbic encephalitis is an autoimmune process affecting the medial temporal lobes or limbic structures that can present either acutely or subacutely with symptoms of confusion, memory impairment, sleep disturbance, seizures, and psychiatric disturbance. Faciobrachial dystonic seizures: the influence of immunotherapy on seizure control and prevention of cognitive impairment in a broadening phenotype. Neuropsychological course of voltage-gated potassium channel and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody related limbic encephalitis. In addition to supporting such mundane movements, the motor system allows athletes, dancers, and musicians to utilize the very same circuitry to achieve millisecond and millimeter precision. Higher-level motor control involves the premotor and supplementary motor cortices in interaction with the basal ganglia and cerebellum. The coordinated motor plan devised by these circuits is transmitted through the corticospinal tracts to stimulate the motor fibers of peripheral nerves that activate select muscles. The motor system can be divided into the pyramidal system and the extrapyramidal system. The pyramidal system includes the corticospinal tracts that span the brain, brainstem, and spinal cord to communicate with the peripheral nervous system. The extrapyramidal system includes the basal ganglia and cerebellum, which serve to initiate, pattern, and coordinate movements. Lesions in the pyramidal system produce weakness, lesions in the cerebellum can produce impaired coordination of movements (ataxia and dysmetria), and lesions in the basal ganglia can alter muscle tone (rigidity) and cause pathologically decreased or increased movement (see "Disorders Presenting with Abnormal Movements"). Lesions affecting higher-level motor cortices impair the ability to perform complex learned motor tasks (apraxia). The pyramidal system has 2 main components: upper motor neurons in the central nervous system and lower motor neurons whose axons lie in the peripheral nervous system. The upper motor neurons begin in the precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe and travel in the corticospinal tracts through the subcortical white matter and anterior brainstem, crossing at the cervicomedullary junction to descend in the contralateral spinal cord. The axons of the corticospinal tracts synapse on lower motor neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord. These lower motor neurons travel through ventral roots into peripheral nerves and terminate at neuromuscular junctions to stimulate muscle contraction. Hemiparesis refers to partial weakness and hemiplegia refers to complete paralysis.

Shooting or jabbing pain occurs with brachial plexus lesion symptoms ms women buy genuine zyprexa on line, usually spontaneously, sometimes with paresthesias. Burning, shooting, and numb feelings are found with brachial plexus damage from radiation. Associated Symptoms Weakness and reduced range of movement of the ipsilateral limb. Usual Course With skeletal secondaries and brachial plexus damage, the course is usually progressive deterioration. However, with radiation damage to the brachial plexus, the course is more protracted, with onset more than five years after treatment and long survival. Complications Patients with skeletal, visceral, and brachial plexus damage have a short survival of less than one year. Social and Physical Disability Moderate impairment of social and occupational activity, with depression related to chronic illness. Pathology Local skin, subcutaneous, skeletal, or visceral metastatic disease; with recurrent disease there is local lymphatic spread, and extradural and brachial plexus involvement. Radiation damage to the brachial plexus is more common in patients who have received repeated or excessive doses of radiation, and in such patients, telangiectasia may be present in the skin with pigmentation and signs of radiation arthritis. Diagnostic Criteria Pain arising more than three years after mastectomy for cancer, at the above sites. Differential Diagnosis Herpes zoster; pleurisy related to infection; and second tumor. Main Features Pain following thoracotomy is characterized by an aching sensation in the distribution of the incision. Pain that persists beyond this time or recurs may have a burning dysesthetic component. Associated Symptoms If the thoracotomy was done for tumor resection and there was evidence of pleural or chest wall involvement at the time of surgery, it is likely that the pain is due to tumor recurrence in the thoracotomy scar. Signs and Laboratory Findings There is usually tenderness, sensory loss, and absence of sweating along the thoracotomy scar. Auscultation of the chest may reveal decreased breath sounds due to underlying lung consolidation or a malignant pleural effusion. A specific trigger point with dramatic pain relief following local anesthetic injection suggests that the pain is benign in nature and due to the formation of a traumatic neuroma. Page 144 Usual Course If the pain is due to traumatic neuromata, it usually declines in months to years and can be relieved by antidepressant-type medications and anticonvulsants. If the pain is due to tumor recurrence, some relief may be obtained by an intercostal nerve block or radiation therapy. Complications Immobility of the upper extremity because of exacerbation of the pain may result in a frozen shoulder. If there is an underlying malignancy, there is tumor infiltration of the intercostal neurovascular bundle. Summary of Essential Features and Diagnostic Criteria Persistent or recurrent pain in the distribution of the thoracotomy scar in patients with lung cancer is commonly associated with tumor recurrence. Differential Diagnosis Epidural disease and tumor in the perivertebral region can also produce intercostal pain if there is recurrent disease following thoracotomy. X4a Neuroma Metastasis most frequently associated with sharp, spontaneous pains radiating to the chest, axilla, or neck. Associated Symptoms the patients usually do not tolerate contact with clothing or the water of the shower. Signs and Laboratory Findings While the area is anesthetic or hypoesthetic, most patients present with troublesome allodynia and also severe tenderness on palpation of the sternum and the costosternal junctions at the site of the harvesting of the graft. Most patients will continue to demonstrate slow healing at the site of the median sternotomy. An active bone scan may be found up to 4 years after surgery due to compromise of the sternal blood supply as a result of harvesting the internal mammary artery.

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About the Security Industries Authority Staff

The Security Industies Authority is headed by a Registrar as the CEO and has thirteen (13) other staff members from all four (4) regions of the country working under him. These includes the Manager Finance and Administration, Manager Licensing and Compliance and four (4) Regional inspectors(MOMASE, Islands, Highland and Southern).

The Inspectors job are very challenging because they are at the front line of enforcement to ensure that private security companies are compliant with the provisions of the Security Protection Act to operate a security company. Most of them are former officers of the Royal PNG Constabulary. Apart from them we also have a efficient staff made up of the Executive Secretary, Accounts Officer, HR Officer , I.T Officer & an Office Janitor in Head Office Port Moresby while Admin Assistance/ Driver and an Office Admin/ Reception in Lae Momase & Highlands Region branch office.

Staff Profiles


Mr. Paul Kingston Isari

Registrar & CEO of PNG Security Industries Authority


Mr. Philip Gene, BAC, CPA PNG

Manager Finance & Administration


Mr. Spencer Gelo

Manager Licencing & Compliance

POM Office Staff

Front left – right Ms Margaret Biskum- Security Inspector New Guinea Islands, Ms Alicia Nana – Executive Secretary & Mrs Mackey Kembi Office Janitor

Back left – right Mr. Rinson Ngale – Security Inspector NCD/Southern Region, Mr. Emmanuel Tumbe HR Officer, Mr. Elijah Fave – Accounts Officer, Mr. Andrew Kaiap – I.T Officer


Lae Office Staff

Front left – right Ms Nelison Roberts – Office Secretary / Reception , Mr. Elvis Otare – Office Admin Assistance / Driver & Acting Momase Region Inspector

Back left – right Vacant – Office Manager & Security Inspector Momase Region, Mr. Pius Moi – Acting Office Manager Security Inspector Highlands Region

Security Industries Authority organizational chart


Vacancies for Council Representatives from the Security
Industry to sit in the Council

The Security Industries Authority currently does not have any vacant Council Representative position. There in total six (6) nominated representative from Security Industries in the council.(see SIA Council)

Qualified candidates will be made known here if there is a vacant in Council Representative positions.

Security Industries Authority Position Vacancies

SIA Currently has no vacancy positions available. Public will be notified for any positions available in the future.

Criteria for appointment to the Security Industries Council

  1. The candidates must have a sound knowledge in the operations of private security companies and are quite versed with the Security Protection Act 2004.
  2. The candidates shall not be currently employed in any licensed security companies that are currently registered with the Security Industries Authority or were not previously employed by any licensed security companies.
  3. The candidates shall not be a current owner or a shareholder of a licensed security company currently registered with the Security Industries Authority and the IPA (Investment promotion Authority).
  4. The candidates shall not be a previous owner or a shareholder of a licensed security company registered with the Security Industries Authority or with the IPA. (Investment promotion Authority).
  5. Interested persons may submit their application with a CV with three (3) references named and attached with their latest passport size photos.
  6. Both male and females are encouraged to participate.
  7. Only registered security companies and permitted security guards will participate in the nominations.
  8. All candidates shall be subjected to a fit and proper persons test before they are formally appointed for 3 years term by the Minister for Police & Internal Security.

For enquiries on this matter

Visit us at the Top floor of the Former Fraud Squad blue building, Gorobe Street, Badili, 2 Mile, Port Moresby NCD or Lae at Post Office Building, second street, top floor, suite # 14, Lae Morobe Province or write to the Chairman Security Industries Council PO BOX 80 Port Moresby National capital District. You can also contact Manager Licensing & Compliance – Mr. Spencer Gelo on telephone 3239851 / 3257930, or email executivesecretary@sia.gov.pg

Invitation to the Stake Holders and the Industry to make a submission on the amendments to current security Protection Act

The Registrar now invites all the registered security companies, service receivers and interested stake holders for their written submission to amend the current Security Protection Act to cover many grey areas of the law.

The submissions should clearly state what provisions of the current Security Protection Act 2004 and the Security Protection regulation 2012 are to be amended to enhance the growth of the industry. This is necessary in light of numerous complaints from the security companies and interested stake holders of the short falls in the current Act which is said to be hindering the growth of the industry.

All submissions must be dropped at The Authority Head Office: Former Fraud Squad Office, Top Floor, Gorobe Street, 2 Mile Drive, Badili,Boroko NCD in Port Moresby. They can also be posted or emailed using the address on the last page. Copies of the current Security Protection Act 2004 can be obtained at the Security Industries Authority office for K35 to use as a guide to prepare the submissions.

Appointment to the Board of Complaints

The Security Industries Authority in compliance with section 57 of the Security Protection Act 2004 has already advertised in the media in early February 2013 seeking for two (2) interested persons to sit on the Board of Complaints.

The purposes of the Board of Complaints is to hear allegations made against licensed security companies by the general public and to award appropriate disciplinary penalties to protect the integrity of the security industry. Several applications have already been received and the short listed candidates will be advised in writing by the chairman shortly before a final selection is made for their three (3) yeas appointments by the Minister for Police and Internal Security.