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Assistant Professor, Indiana Wesleyan University

In total retinal detachment symptoms mononucleosis buy generic diamox 250 mg on-line, the retina is funnel-shaped being attached to the disc and ora serrata. Visual fields-Scotomas are present corresponding to the area of the detached retina. Ultrasonography confirms the diagnosis of retinal detachment in cases when retina cannot be visualised. Differential Diagnosis Senile Retinoschisis There is splitting of the retina at the level of the inner nuclear and outer plexiform layers. Treatment Principle-The main principle of treatment is to approximate and adhere the torn part of the retina to an area of choroid by exciting aseptic inflammation. To seal retinal breaks All the retinal breaks should be detected, accurately localised and sealed by producing aseptic chorioretinitis. Photocoagulation-Ideally a triple row of burns is placed around the break taking care to coagulate the area where sensory and pigment epithelial layers are still in opposition. Scleral buckling-Silicon band provides adequate mechanical support to overlying sclera. Pars plana vitrectomy-It breaks the tractional band in the vitreous, thus, releasing the pull on the retina in cases of tractional retinal detachment. They are present in the lower part of the eye (typical) and may be associated with coloboma of the iris. Principle It is based on the sensitivity of the recording film to the presence of fluorescent light from the dye. However, it does not pass through healthy retinal pigment epithelium and retinal capillaries due to tight endothelial junction. About 5 cc of 10% solution of sodium fluorescein is injected intravenously in anticubital vein very fast through a wide bore needle. The fluorescein can be observed directly by slit-lamp or ophthalmoscope and can also be photographed by a fundus camera. By sending light through an excitor filter (420-490 nm) for activation and by screening the emitted fluorescence through a barrier filter (510-530 nm), valuable informations of blood flow and perfusion are obtained. Fluorescein angiography the Retina 333 When the dye enters the eye within 8-11 seconds, there is at first a choroidal blush. It is followed by the passage through the retinal arterioles, the capillary bed and into the veins. It should be combined with fundus photography for permanent record and assessment. Uses It gives a clear idea of the integrity of the retinal vascular tree and choroidal circulation. Diabetic retinopathy-It reveals neovascularisation, microaneurysms, rubeosis iridis and passage of dye into the vitreous (vitreous fluorophotometry). Papilloedema-It is useful in confirming the diagnosis by leakage and pooling of the fluorescein eye. The reflected waves are converted into electrical potential and displayed on a oscilloscope (cathode ray tube). The distance between the spikes gives a measure of distance between intraocular structures. B-Scan (Intensity Modulation) the transducer is moved across the eye to obtain a two-dimensional picture of the ocular structures. C-Scan A strongly focused transducer scans a 4 cm square aperture in which eye is placed in the centre. The temperature depends on the size of the tip, duration of the freezing process and the gas used. The present cryosurgical units use freon, nitrous oxide or carbon dioxide gases as cooling agents. Lens-The cryoextraction of the lens is the best technique for intracapsular lens extraction as it reduces the incidence of capsular rupture and vitreous loss. Retina-The cryopexy seals retinal breaks in retinal detachment, flattens retinoschisis and destroys some small tumours such as angioma.

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The disability engendered is often remarkably severe medications 5 songs purchase diamox 250mg visa, with inability to work and curtailment of social life in as many as 10%. Organic components may underlie pain referred from strains to ligaments and the small apophyseal joints of the spine, aggravated no doubt by spasm of the cervical muscles. Disinclination on the part of the patient to attempt gradual mobilisation may lead to a vicious circle of continuing tension from efforts to guard and splint the spine. Much of the psychological distress may stem from the pain and disability engendered in this manner. The possibility that brain damage of a subtle nature may sometimes make a contribution is hard to rule out with certainty. Alexander (1998) concludes that the evidence for brain damage, in the absence of any direct blow to the head, is interesting but not substantive, despite suggestive evidence from animal studies (Ommaya et al. A woman of 67 was struck from behind while a passenger in a stationary car, sustaining a whiplash injury but no direct trauma to the head. She could not recall anything of the past 4 days and showed faulty recall of the previous weeks and months. She could finally recall the car being struck but remained amnesic for the 48 hours that followed. Suggested explanations included shear stresses in the brain or interference with circulation in the vertebral arteries. One study hinted at the possibility of parieto-occipital abnormalities (Otte et al. Instead, frontotemporal hypometabolism was found that was highly correlated with depression, suggesting it was related to the known effects of depression on cerebral blood flow. Neuropsychological testing has occasionally appeared to uphold the presence of mild brain damage (Bohnen et al. However, poor cognitive performance is associated with high levels of anxiety, rather than changes in cerebral blood flow and metabolism (Radanov et al. Psychogenic factors are strongly suspected of making an important contribution in many of the prolonged cases. In the first place, symptoms often worsen steadily over several weeks after the accident, which seems inconsistent with organic pathological factors (Gotten 1956). Moreover, psychological sequelae are understandable in terms of the sudden shock attaching to the acute experience, especially since consciousness is usually fully retained throughout. The spasm and tension in the neck muscles may themselves owe much to emotional tension. A few studies have attempted to explore the relative importance of organic and non-organic factors in the aftermath of whiplash injuries. There is good evidence that being female and older are risk factors for chronic symptoms (Cote et al. At all follow-up examinations (3, 6 and 12 months), the outcome was strongly related to the severity of the neck injury, as reflected in initial symptoms of radicular irritation and intensity of neck pain. Better scores across a range of psychosocial measures favoured those with better outcome, though none were statistically significant. Others have also found that early measures of the severity of neck injury and pain are good predictors of late outcome (Kasch et al. On the other hand, when patients are assessed with a qualityof-life questionnaire early after injury, those who report being more distressed are more likely to have symptoms 1 year later (Richter et al. The role of litigation will often be thought to be important, and prospective follow-up studies have highlighted the deleterious effects of litigation on outcome (Gun et al. Among patients seen for medicolegal assessment, Pearce (1989) reported spurious weakness of grip in over half and non-anatomical sensory loss in onethird. The 60% of patients who scored below cut-off on this test also did badly across a range of other tests of cognition. Under the no-fault system the average time to closure of claims was halved to about 200 days. The authors suggested that time to closure of claims was a valid marker of recovery, and therefore claimants recover faster if compensation for pain and suffering is not available. Faster claim closure was associated with a more favourable health status (Cote et al.

However treatment diffusion order generic diamox online, factual information is postulated as being stored in the neocortex independently of the episode in which it was acquired, and a steeper gradient for semantic than episodic memories is also predicted. Some functional activation investigations have provided findings consistent with this theory (Maguire et al. On the other hand, many amnesic patients do indeed show a steep temporal gradient, as reported above, and Kopelman et al. Neuropsychology in Relation to Psychiatry 41 Furthermore, retrograde amnesia gradients across autobiographical and semantic remote memory do not always fit the predicted pattern. An alternative view, little discussed to date, is that the relative sparing of early memories in neurological amnesia reflects differences in the way that such early memories were originally encoded, making them more likely to be retrieved by healthy volunteers at a later date and also protecting them from the effects of subsequent brain damage. Psychogenic mechanisms may be important in those cases which follow a mild concussion, but also in some cases where there has been more severe brain pathology. In the past, it has often (erroneously) been thought of as pathognomonic of diencephalic amnesia, but the relationship between diencephalic amnesia and confabulation has been greatly overstressed. In general, it may appear as an evanescent phenomenon, or in rare cases it may last for many years. Typically, the patient gives a reasonably coherent but false account of some recent event or experience, either in relation to his own activities or in response to suggestion by the examiner. The content can sometimes be traced to a true memory that has become displaced in time or context. This form tends to occur spontaneously even without a provoking stimulus, and the content is often related to wish fulfillment and the seeking of prestige. Many such cases have been reported in the literature, but they differ considerably in the circumstances and features of their onset, underlying clinical diagnosis, findings on neuroimaging, and the postulated site or sites of pathology, as well as in the adequacy of the clinical descriptions given. This patient was severely impaired across all the remote memory tests with which she was investigated, but showed normal performance or only moderate impairment at various anterograde memory tests. However, the interpretation of her deficit was confounded by her subsequent development of various hysterical symptoms in the context of depression (Kapur 2000). The underlying nature of such cases has been debated elsewhere (Kopelman 2000; Kapur 2000). Other cases showed poor anterograde memory in more moderate or subtle form across a number of tests, particularly story recall, face recognition memory, and delayed recall, begging the question of whether their failure reflects, in some sense, task demands and task difficulties. Some of the most convincing cases in this literature initially showed a severe anterograde amnesia as well as a severe retrograde amnesia. By the time of their assessment, the retrograde amnesia remained profound, whereas the anterograde amnesia had become only moderate, mild or minimal; in such cases, the real issue concerns differential patterns of recovery, and the way in which physiological or psychological factors can contribute to this. However, it is not clear whether this has resulted from brief 42 Chapter 2 these were similar in nature to those sometimes observed in Korsakoff and Alzheimer patients when tested shortly after exposure, consisting mainly of additions of inaccurate or irrelevant material or changes in the sense of the passage. The evidence linking spontaneous confabulation to the presence of frontal lobe dysfunction includes the finding by Stuss et al. Kapur and Coughlan (1980) were able to chart the change from fantastic to momentary confabulations in a patient with left frontal damage following subarachnoid haemorrhage, and to show that this change was paralleled by improvement in performance on frontal lobe or executive tests. Moscovitch and Melo (1997) reported that ventromedial pathology seemed to be the common factor in their patients, but others have disputed its critical importance (Dalla Barba 1993, 2002). Thus, it commonly sets in as clouding of consciousness is receding and persists thereafter while insight into the unreal nature of the delirious experiences is lacking. The first group of theories emphasises faulty specification and verification of memory retrieval. For example, Burgess and Shallice (1996) postulated deficits in a descriptor process, an editor process and a mediator process, which make differential contributions to the clinical phenomena of confabulation. Moscovitch and Melo (1997) put forward a somewhat similar argument, identifying a number of putative deficits in cue-retrieval, strategic search or faulty monitoring, the last resulting in erroneous memories not being edited out or suppressed. Moreover, encoding impairments would make subjects more liable to confabulatory errors at retrieval. The second group of theories emphasises so-called source memory deficits, either with respect to confusion about the temporal context or sequence of memories, or in distinguishing between real and imagined memories. Asked what they did yesterday or what they will do tomorrow, the patients reply with the well-established routines or habits of a lifetime, irrelevant to their present situation. A third group of theories emphasises that multiple deficits may contribute to confabulation.

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  • Exercise regularly, but not in the last 2 hours before going to bed. Exercise, especially aerobic exercise, has been shown to make people fall asleep faster and get deeper and more restful sleep. Sex can be a natural sleep inducer for some people.
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As shown above symptoms brain tumor cheap diamox express, even simple experiences such as a pain in the foot pose a problem for reductionist theory. Searle disputes this idea, but he accepts that subjectivity and intentionality are defining characteristics of consciousness. Unlike physical phenomena, the phenomenology of consciousness cannot be observed from the outside; unlike physical phenomena, it is always of or about something. So, even if one accepts that consciousness in some sense is caused by or is emergent from the brain, why call Page 51 it physical instead of mental or psychological? The absence of any completely persuasive reductionist case, in spite of the eloquence of its protagonists, suggests that reductionist accounts of consciousness attempt to do something that cannot be done. Examination of the brain from the outside can reveal only the physical causes and correlates of consciousness; it can never reveal consciousness itself. Many phenomenal properties of conscious experience appear very different from those of brain states. Consequently, it is difficult to imagine what science could discover to demonstrate that experiences are ontologically identical to states of the brain. To put matters another way, once one abandons the atrophied descriptions of consciousness implicit in dualism and reductionism, any realistic hope of reducing its phenomenology to brain states disappears. Where appearance is concerned we cannot make the appearance-reality distinction because the appearance is the reality. Let us wave it goodbye without tears, and say hello to a nonreductionist science of consciousness, which takes phenomenology seriously and does not ignore common sense. Note that the perceptual projection is a subjective, psychological effect produced by unconscious cognitive processing. If the experienced world did not correspond reasonably well to the actual one, our survival would be threatened. At great distances, our distance judgments and consequent experiences bear little resemblance to actual distances-how far away does the moon look? It is worth keeping in mind that many nonreductionist positions also assume that there are neural causes and correlates of given conscious experiences, including the reflexive model, dualism, epiphenomenalism, emergent interactionism, and so on. The causes and correlates of conscious experience should not be confused with their ontology. The Science of Consciousness: Psychological, Neuropsychological and Clinical Reviews. Forman I am honored to be included in this work with such eminent scientists and philosophers. It is a tribute to the scientific community as a whole and to the Tucson organizing committee that both have opened their doors to another source of knowledge about consciousness, and this much, this soon. After all, it was only in 1980 that Brian Josephson observed what was then correct: mystical experience is not at the moment considered by the majority of scientists to be a matter worthy of scientific attention. I think it is right to look at some of the more responsible mystics for insights about consciousness. When a biologist seeks to understand a complex phenomenon, one key strategy is to look at the phenomenon in its simplest form. Its simple gene structure has allowed biologists to understand much of the gene functioning of complex species. Freud and Durkheim both used totemism, which they construed as the simplest form, to understand the complexities of religious life. The methodological principle is: To understand something complex, turn to its simple forms. Usually our minds are an enormously complex stew of thoughts, feelings, sensations, wants, snatches of song, pains, drives, daydreams, and consciousness itself, more or less aware of it all. To understand consciousness in itself, the obvious thing would be to clear away as much of the internal clutter and noise as possible. During meditation, one begins to slow down the Page 54 thinking process to have fewer or less intense thoughts. Finally, one may come to a time of inner stillness-one becomes utterly silent inside, analogous to a gap between thoughts.

About the Security Industries Authority Staff

The Security Industies Authority is headed by a Registrar as the CEO and has thirteen (13) other staff members from all four (4) regions of the country working under him. These includes the Manager Finance and Administration, Manager Licensing and Compliance and four (4) Regional inspectors(MOMASE, Islands, Highland and Southern).

The Inspectors job are very challenging because they are at the front line of enforcement to ensure that private security companies are compliant with the provisions of the Security Protection Act to operate a security company. Most of them are former officers of the Royal PNG Constabulary. Apart from them we also have a efficient staff made up of the Executive Secretary, Accounts Officer, HR Officer , I.T Officer & an Office Janitor in Head Office Port Moresby while Admin Assistance/ Driver and an Office Admin/ Reception in Lae Momase & Highlands Region branch office.

Staff Profiles


Mr. Paul Kingston Isari

Registrar & CEO of PNG Security Industries Authority


Mr. Philip Gene, BAC, CPA PNG

Manager Finance & Administration


Mr. Spencer Gelo

Manager Licencing & Compliance

POM Office Staff

Front left – right Ms Margaret Biskum- Security Inspector New Guinea Islands, Ms Alicia Nana – Executive Secretary & Mrs Mackey Kembi Office Janitor

Back left – right Mr. Rinson Ngale – Security Inspector NCD/Southern Region, Mr. Emmanuel Tumbe HR Officer, Mr. Elijah Fave – Accounts Officer, Mr. Andrew Kaiap – I.T Officer


Lae Office Staff

Front left – right Ms Nelison Roberts – Office Secretary / Reception , Mr. Elvis Otare – Office Admin Assistance / Driver & Acting Momase Region Inspector

Back left – right Vacant – Office Manager & Security Inspector Momase Region, Mr. Pius Moi – Acting Office Manager Security Inspector Highlands Region

Security Industries Authority organizational chart


Vacancies for Council Representatives from the Security
Industry to sit in the Council

The Security Industries Authority currently does not have any vacant Council Representative position. There in total six (6) nominated representative from Security Industries in the council.(see SIA Council)

Qualified candidates will be made known here if there is a vacant in Council Representative positions.

Security Industries Authority Position Vacancies

SIA Currently has no vacancy positions available. Public will be notified for any positions available in the future.

Criteria for appointment to the Security Industries Council

  1. The candidates must have a sound knowledge in the operations of private security companies and are quite versed with the Security Protection Act 2004.
  2. The candidates shall not be currently employed in any licensed security companies that are currently registered with the Security Industries Authority or were not previously employed by any licensed security companies.
  3. The candidates shall not be a current owner or a shareholder of a licensed security company currently registered with the Security Industries Authority and the IPA (Investment promotion Authority).
  4. The candidates shall not be a previous owner or a shareholder of a licensed security company registered with the Security Industries Authority or with the IPA. (Investment promotion Authority).
  5. Interested persons may submit their application with a CV with three (3) references named and attached with their latest passport size photos.
  6. Both male and females are encouraged to participate.
  7. Only registered security companies and permitted security guards will participate in the nominations.
  8. All candidates shall be subjected to a fit and proper persons test before they are formally appointed for 3 years term by the Minister for Police & Internal Security.

For enquiries on this matter

Visit us at the Top floor of the Former Fraud Squad blue building, Gorobe Street, Badili, 2 Mile, Port Moresby NCD or Lae at Post Office Building, second street, top floor, suite # 14, Lae Morobe Province or write to the Chairman Security Industries Council PO BOX 80 Port Moresby National capital District. You can also contact Manager Licensing & Compliance – Mr. Spencer Gelo on telephone 3239851 / 3257930, or email executivesecretary@sia.gov.pg

Invitation to the Stake Holders and the Industry to make a submission on the amendments to current security Protection Act

The Registrar now invites all the registered security companies, service receivers and interested stake holders for their written submission to amend the current Security Protection Act to cover many grey areas of the law.

The submissions should clearly state what provisions of the current Security Protection Act 2004 and the Security Protection regulation 2012 are to be amended to enhance the growth of the industry. This is necessary in light of numerous complaints from the security companies and interested stake holders of the short falls in the current Act which is said to be hindering the growth of the industry.

All submissions must be dropped at The Authority Head Office: Former Fraud Squad Office, Top Floor, Gorobe Street, 2 Mile Drive, Badili,Boroko NCD in Port Moresby. They can also be posted or emailed using the address on the last page. Copies of the current Security Protection Act 2004 can be obtained at the Security Industries Authority office for K35 to use as a guide to prepare the submissions.

Appointment to the Board of Complaints

The Security Industries Authority in compliance with section 57 of the Security Protection Act 2004 has already advertised in the media in early February 2013 seeking for two (2) interested persons to sit on the Board of Complaints.

The purposes of the Board of Complaints is to hear allegations made against licensed security companies by the general public and to award appropriate disciplinary penalties to protect the integrity of the security industry. Several applications have already been received and the short listed candidates will be advised in writing by the chairman shortly before a final selection is made for their three (3) yeas appointments by the Minister for Police and Internal Security.